Theme 20 Years of HCIC: Building on the past, looking to the future
Location Snow Mountain Ranch, Fraser, Colorado
Date February 4 - 8, 2009
Paper Presentations
A position paper on 'Living Laboratories': Rethinking Ecological Designs and Experimentation in Human-Computer Interaction
Ed Chi (PARC)
Discussant: Jeffrey Heer
+ Abstract - Abstract
HCI have long moved beyond the evaluation of a single user sitting in front of a single desktop computer, yet many of our fundamentally held viewpoints about evaluation continues to be ruled by outdated biases derived from this legacy. We need to engage with real users in 'Living Laboratories', in which researchers either adopt or create real systems that are used in real settings. These new experimental platforms will greatly enable researchers to conduct evaluations that span many users, places, time, location, and social factors in ways that are unimaginable before.
Activity-based Design: A New Research Basis for the Future of Human-Computer Interaction
James Landay (University of Washington)
Discussant: Mark Ackerman
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The mobile phone is a key enabler of activity-based applications that are intimate with the user's physical world. Traditionally, HCI focuses on short-term interactions with technology, offering little help in designing these applications. HCI needs a new foundation that helps designers create valuable technologies to support our long-term goals.
Addressing the Unsolved Issues in HCI
John Thomas (IBM Research)
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In this paper we review some of the important issues in HCI that have been long recognized but which still have not been adequately addressed. These include the following: 1) the over-whelming emphasis in the user interface on discrete finger movements for computer input and output displays for the fovea; 2) the failure of HCI to increase human 'wisdom' and ability to take the 'long view'; 3) the lack of an adequate unified theory of HCI across various levels of behavior and across various processes.
Challenges of Visualization Designs
Xiaolong (Luke) Zhang (Penn State)
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Information visualization has had a dramatic impact on how we work with data. The increasing volume of data and increasing complexity of data-centered human activities pose new challenges for visualization designs. In this paper, we present some challenges in visualization design and discuss our current research projects related to them.
Keeping Up with the Future of Human-Computer Interaction: The Many Masters of Scholarship, Social Action Work & Rapid Technological Change
Leysia Palen (University of Colorado, Boulder)
Discussant: Wendy Kellogg
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HCI's broader focus on social action research places new demands on our field. Drawing from experience in crisis informatics research, I reflect on tensions between managing demands of scholarship, education and social action work while responding to practitioner demands for solutions in a domain of rapid social and technological change.
Large data changes the way we think about HCI
+ Abstract - Abstract
Abstract: Perhaps the most important shift in HCI during the past 20 years has been the wide-spread adoption of the web-based interface. Along with providing a common platform that transcends place, operating system, and browser type (more-or-less), the web-based UI has given us the ability to collect a vast amount of behavioral and use data on a scale that was previously impractical. With cloud computing comes cloud data collection, usually in large quantities, frequently unsurpassable as a source of insight. This panel will discuss the new possibilites that large data brings to the HCI table. Is it just more of the same, or will large data from web-clients fundamentally change some of our insights into the way user interfaces are actually used? How does the shift from small-scale in-lab testing to large-scale real-use data instrumentation change our perspectives on users? At the same time, we'll consider what gets lost in the data downpour: are we being seduced by the easy availability of mass quantities? Our panelists will each give their perspective (and experiences!) on surviving the shift from traditional HCI data collection practices to large-scale data via web-interfaces, summarizing their position with key lessons on how each of us should be changing our own HCI data collection and analysis practices, extrapolating from the past 1 score of years to the next bidecade.
Leveraging Open-Source Software In the Design and Development Process
Collin Green (NASA Ames Research Center)
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We present our HCI Group's design and development of a problem reporting system for NASA based on adaptation of open-source software. We discuss our criteria for selecting an open-source project, outcomes of our effort, and whether our experience may generalize considering the larger picture of current open-source software projects.
Meta-Design, Social Creativity, Social Computing, and Cultures of Participation: Themes for Future Innovations in HCI
Gerhard Fischer (University of Colorado, Boulder)
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The shift from a consumer culture (producing finished goods to be consumed passively) to a participation culture (all people participate actively) represents unique and fundamental opportunities and challenges for research in HCI. This contribution will ground future research paradigms by assessing the major contributions made by previous HCIC meetings.
Panel: 20 Years of Theory-Based Design
Scott McCrickard (Virginia Tech)
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In 1989 at the ACM CHI Conference, the paper 'Artifact as Theory-Nexus: Hermeneutics Meets Theory-Based Design' by John M. Carroll and Wendy Kellogg explored the tensions between science and design in the nascent field of human-computer interaction, presenting an approach to theory-based design rooted in the view of an artifact as the focal point for the theories, psychological effects, and experimental results that are related to it. The paper argues that this view of design serves to combine the fields of theory and practice in an accessible manner, grounding the views of theoreticians in a manner applicable by practitioners. This panel reflects on the topics from this paper--both past and future--on the directions of human-computer interaction.
Quality, Community, and Tomorrow's Research Literature: Reflections on HCI Conferences and Journals
Jonathan Grudin (Microsoft Research)
Discussant: Don Norman
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Twenty years ago, we submitted research papers by postal mail and hauled overhead projectors to early HCIC meetings. Since then, digital technologies have dramatically affected how research results are communicated. This paper examines the changes and resulting tensions, and charts possible paths that we could embrace or be dragged along.
Supporting Coordination of Interdependent Work
James Herbsleb (Carnegie Mellon University)
Discussant: Luke Zhang
+ Abstract - Abstract
New organizational forms present a fundamental challenge for supporting group work in the future. We propose a theory of coordination that represents work tasks as a network of linked actions and constraints. We use observational data to illustrate several properties of constraint networks that impact the effectiveness of coordination activities.
The Past, Present and Future of Programming in HCI
Andrew Ko (University of Washington)
Discussant: John Thomas
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The first computer users were all programmers and HCI started, in part, with a focus on improving how programming was done. Although this research languished in the 90's, now, research that combines HCI and software engineering regularly wins awards at top conferences. In this paper, we discuss the past, present and future roles of programming in HCI.
The Role of HCI in Biomedical Informatics: Untapped Opportunities for Broad Social Impact
Suresh Bhavnani (University of Michigan)
+ Abstract - Abstract
Central to the field of biomedical informatics is the development and adoption of tools that support interdisciplinary and collaborative researchers, healthcare providers, and patients. This is particularly true in Translational and Clinical Science, a new research movement in the biomedical field which aims to encourage the translation of results between basic science research, clinical research, and practice in the medical community. Unfortunately, while these themes are highly familiar to Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) researchers, the discipline is largely under-represented in the biomedical informatics field. To bring attention to this untapped opportunity, this panel brings together four researchers who will discuss HCI issues as they apply to biomedical informatics. The presentations and subsequent discussion will provide insights into the challenges and opportunities for research and funding of HCI-focused projects in the biomedical informatics field, and the potential for broad social impact on the health of millions of citizens.
Usable Privacy and Security: A Grand Challenge for HCI
Jason Hong (Carnegie Mellon University)
Discussant: Theresa Roberts
+ Abstract - Abstract
In this position paper, we argue that usable privacy and security is a grand challenge that needs more attention from the HCI community. We also discuss benefits to and new challenges for HCI, and use our research experiences to provide a critique of HCI.
Using the study of email to reflect on the past and look forward to the future
John Tang (IBM Research)
Discussant: Robert Kraut
+ Abstract - Abstract
We reflect on over twenty years of email research to review lessons learned. We added our own study of a web-based email prototype which has been used by over 10,000 users in 64 countries by people in a wide range of job roles in our company. Comparing and contrasting the differences among the email studies published suggests some new research directions for the future. We see further research explor-ing the continued evolution of email usage over time, differences in usage among sub-groups, the analy-sis of usage log data to further our understanding of email practice, and the relationship of email usage with the larger topic of information overload.
What still matters about Distance
Judith Olson (University of California at Irvine)
+ Abstract - Abstract
At the tenth anniversary workshop of the Human-Computer Interaction Consortium the Olsons reflected on the past, present, and future of the role that geographical distance plays in the work of teams (subsequently published as Olson & Olson, 2000). A decade has passed, filled with research and technology development relevant to the issues raised in that paper. Indeed, the 555 Google Scholar citations of the 'Distance Matters' paper are a good entry point to much of this research. Our current goal is to review where things stand with respect to these challenges after a decade of activity, reflecting on both the current situation but again looking at the prospects for the future of distributed team work.
Boaster Presentations
Intellectual Landscape and Trends in CSCW Research
Gregorio Convertino (PARC)
+ Abstract - Abstract
Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) is a young interdisciplinary community developing its identity. This paper reports on a meta-analysis of all the peer-reviewed papers presented at the ACM CSCW conference from 1986 to 2006 (466 papers). The approach used consists of content analysis of the papers and structural analysis of authorship and citations. Our goals are to characterize possible properties of CSCW as an interdisciplinary community in formation and extract relevant trends that can inform us about the future for this community. The analysis is currently being extended to include papers from the CSCW 2008 venue.
Organizing and Re-finding Files with Folders and Tags
Shanshan Ma (Drexel University)
+ Abstract - Abstract
A controlled lab experiment was used to compare users' performance and preferences for file management among three structures: a hierarchical folder structure, a tagging structure, and a hybrid structure with both folders and tags. The study found that tagging system required significantly less mouse clicks to re-find files in various working conditions.
Assessing the Value of a Pattern Structure For Communicating Design Advice
George Abraham (Drexel University)
+ Abstract - Abstract
This paper presents findings from an experiment evaluating the impact of a pattern structure on the worthiness of design advice, and explores whether patterns facilitate communication of design knowledge. The study includes claims as an alternate structure. Findings indicate that each structure has strengths that can be combined to yield a more robust representation.
Why is There a Meth Lab in My Basement? Folk Models of Home Computer Security
Rick Wash (University of Michigan)
+ Abstract - Abstract
Though home computer users have little technical training, they are becoming aware of the need for information security systems. I examine the mental models of `folk' computer users. I find most home computer users conceptualize all malware using a metaphor with biological "viruses," but think of hackers as computer "burglars."
In favor of complexity
Don Norman (jnd (Northwestern University))
+ Abstract - Abstract
Why are things so complex? Because the world is complex. Our tools must reflect reality. Complexity can be good, leading to a rich, satisfying life, filled with rich, satisfying experiences. We must distinguish complexity from confusion, perplexity, and unintelligibility. The goal is complexity with order, lucidity and understandability.
Autonomous Systems Interaction Design (ASID) based on the Nonlinear Dynamic Human Behavior Model with Real Time Constraints (NDHB-Model/RT)
Muneo K (AIST)
+ Abstract - Abstract
Users behave autonomously, so it seems natural to design interactive systems as autonomous systems. We have developed an architecture model of users called the Nonlinear Dynamic Human Behavior model with Real-Time constraints, NDHB-Model/RT, which should serve as the basis for designing interactions of autonomous systems.
Tabletop Displays for Small Group Study: Affordances of Paper and Digital Materials
Anne Marie Piper (UCSD)
+ Abstract - Abstract
We compare the affordances of presenting educational material on a tabletop display with presenting the same material in paper form. Students using the tabletop display solved problems before looking at answer keys and repeated activities more often than students studying with paper documents. We summarize the tradeoffs of each medium.
Supporting Users in Geospatial Collaboration and Mobile Wireless Applications
Blaine Hoffman (The College of Information Sciences and Technology)
+ Abstract - Abstract
This paper discusses a collaborative software prototype that supports teams performing synchronous map-based planning tasks and the augmentation of the prototype via an annotation browser tool. The paper then describes the design of a location-sensitive mobile application for civic engagement. A brief overview and analysis of each intervention is presented.
Measurement and Analysis of Social Learning in Online Social Networks
Sarita Yardi (Georgia Institute of Technology)
+ Abstract - Abstract
Teens are living out their social lives online. Yet, few transfer their natural enthusiasm on the Internet into opportunities for economic advancement. I am developing a site to teach teens how to design their own online social networks. This thesis investigates ways of effectively designing, measuring, and evaluating social learning in online social networks.
Computational Systems are Representational Systems
clayton lewis (University of Colorado)
+ Abstract - Abstract
The CompRep framework is a way of thinking about computation that clarifies the relationship of human-centered computing to other aspects of computing. It builds on work of MacKinlay and others on the nature of representation.
An Ethnography Among the Homeless: What I'm Learning in the Field
Jahmeilah Richardson (University of California, Irvine)
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This research explores issues surrounding the ecology of digital and traditional technologies encountered by the homeless in Los Angeles County. The approach takes into account characteristic ways of thinking and acting as they relate to the social settings the homeless inhabit and the artifacts within them.
Social Performances: Understanding the motivations for online participatory behavior
Jude Yew (School of Information, University of Michigan)
+ Abstract - Abstract
Why are users motivated to contribute time and effort in online environments with relative strangers. My dissertation proposes that one way to explain online participatory behavior is to use the lens of social performances. This lens suggests that individual participation involves elements of both individual and collective performative behavior - rationalizing and aligning individual contributions to the collective effort. Understanding participation as a form of social performance can enable us to better design systems that encourage participation, collaboration and sharing.
Respecting Users' Individual Privacy Constraints in Web Personalization
Yang Wang (UC-Irvine)
+ Abstract - Abstract
Personalized systems need to take users' privacy concerns into account, as well as applicable privacy laws and regulations. We discuss how these constraints may affect personalized systems. We present a privacy-enhancing personalization framework that dynamically selects personalization methods during runtime that respect these various privacy constraints.
Design Models for Interactive Problem-solving
Keith Butler (Microsoft)
+ Abstract - Abstract
We illustrate a new framework for designing systems for technical problem solving. This framework treats the user interface as an interactive, external representation of the ontology of the problem. This view has many ramifications for designing the user experience, and for the role of design activity in software projects.
Enabling Eyes-free Interaction with Tactile Messages Based on Human Experience
Kevin Li (University of California, San Diego)
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We propose a new direction in haptic research that attempts to exploit human experience. By taking advantage of human experience, our goal is to generate tactile messages with pre-learned meaning. We have focused on mapping sound, human touch and speech to the tactile channel.
Opportunistic Programming: Writing Code to Prototype, Ideate, and Discover
Joel Brandt (Stanford HCI Group)
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Programmers often write code to prototype, ideate, and discover. To do this, they work opportunistically, emphasizing speed and ease of development over code robustness and maintainability. How can we better support this practice? Our research group is addressing this question through fieldwork, laboratory studies, and tool building.
Improving API Documentation Using API Usage Information
Jeffery Stylos (Carnegie Mellon University)
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My research tries to make APIs easier to use, by making better APIs, better programming tools, and better documentation. My latest documentation project uses class popularity (as measured by Google hits) to determine font sizes, and lets users create "placeholder" methods to stand-in for those they expect to appear.
Supporting Collaborative Sensemaking in Map-Based Emergency Management and Planning
Anna Wu (Pennsylvania State University)
+ Abstract - Abstract
Collaborative sensemaking is critical in highly coupled group work involving geospatial information, such as emergency management with multiple domain experts. The proposed research will investigate the process of collaborative sensemaking in emergency planning and implement a map-based online system to support information sharing, synthesis, and analysis.
Collective Intelligence in Disaster: Examination of the Phenomenon in the Aftermath of the 2007 Virginia Tech Shooting
Sarah Vieweg (CU - Boulder)
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How do people return to a sense of normalcy when something unexpected happens? What role do ICTs play in that process? Our research examines such questions, and this paper highlights a case study of collective intelligence that occurred on a Social Networking Site in response to the 2007 Virginia Tech tragedy.
To the Field and Back Again: Culturally Grounded Health Technology Design
Andrea Grimes (Georgia Institute of Technology)
+ Abstract - Abstract
It is critical to account for the relationship between health and culture when designing systems that address diet-related health disparities in low-income African American communities. We describe the fieldwork we conducted to examine the relationship between culture and nutrition and generate design implications, as well as our resulting system.
Undo and Erase Events as Indicators of Usability Problems
David Akers (Stanford University)
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We describe an experiment that demonstrates that undo and erase events are useful indicators of usability problems, for creation-oriented applications like Google SketchUp. This experiment yields a new low-cost usability evaluation method called backtracking analysis.
Always-Available Mobile Computing
T. Scott Saponas (University of Washington)
+ Abstract - Abstract
As our primary use of computing continues to move off the desktop, we need new interfaces to mobile computing that extend and move beyond the traditional GUI and WIMP techniques shoehorned into our phones. I discuss always-available interfaces to improve our current interactions and to enable new mobile computing opportunities.
A Human Motor Behavior Model for Distant Pointing Tasks
Regis Kopper (Virginia Tech)
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We present a model for distant pointing (pointing at the display from a distance) that predicts the time for a task as a function of angular dimensions. Contrary to Fitts' law, in distant pointing the target size has a much larger effect on movement time than the movement amplitude.
Empathic Robots, How-To Videos & Other Virtually Perfect Sources of Help
Cristen Torrey (Carnegie Mellon University)
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My research explores the social and emotional experiences of people using technology to seek help. There are myriad ways to seek help, so how will people choose? And how will they fare'when advised by a robot, assisted by a stranger in a forum, or informed by a YouTube video?
Trust, Guanxi, and Online Gaming in China
Yang Wang (UC-Irvine)
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This paper presents our ethnographic research on gaming in China. We found that despite general lack of trust in online games, strong trust and quality guanxi can be cultivated through long-term playing together; lending, sharing and gifting game resources; and self-disclosure in IM, phone conservations and face to face meetings.
Social Applications of Voice Transformation
Mike Nowak (Stanford University)
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Transformed social interaction refers to the strategic decoupling of performed and rendered behavior in computer-mediated environments. This paper proposes an extension of this paradigm to include transformations specific to voice. The feasibility of such transformations for various social attributes is discussed, along with potential applications and directions for further study.
Whatever Became of the Claim?
Stacy Branham (Virginia Tech)
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This paper puts forth a framework for understanding worldview adherence and transition within the field towards unpacking the nature of the claim. It argues that claims research has been drawn back into isolated investigation and that re-consideration of the claim under emergent frameworks will stimulate fruitful new research trajectories.
The ProD Framework for Proactive Displays
Ben Congleton (University of Michigan)
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We describe a software framework for displays that can sense and respond to individuals in their environment. We hope to make it easy for researchers to prototype and evaluate a wide variety of proactive applications using low cost hardware.
Cognitive Crash Dummies: Prototyping with a Difference
Bonnie John (Carnegie Mellon University)
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Just as crash dummies in the automotive industry save lives by testing the physical safety of automobiles before they are brought to market, cognitive crash dummies save time, money, and potentially even lives, by allowing designers to automatically test their design ideas before implementing them. Cognitive crash dummies are engineering models of human performance that make quantitative predictions of human behavior on proposed systems without the expense of empirical studies on running prototypes. When cognitive crash dummies are built into prototyping tools, design ideas can be rapidly expressed and easily evaluated.
Enabling End Users to Independently Build Accessibility Into the Web
Jeffrey Bigham (University of Washington CSE)
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We envision a web that all users can actively shape to work better for them. For disabled computer users, the web offers the promise of endless content easily converted to accessible formats but barriers remain. This paper describes our work to enable blind end users to collaboratively improve the web.
Promoting Energy Efficient Behaviors in the Home through Feedback: The Role of Human-Computer Interaction
Jon Froehlich (University of Washington)
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The consumption of energy is unlike most consumable goods. It is abstract, invisible, and untouchable. Without a tangible manifestation, home energy usage often goes unnoticed. Advances in resource monitoring systems will soon provide real-time data on electricity, gas, and water usage in the home. This will produce a tremendous amount of data that can be analyzed and fed back to the user, creating a rich space of opportunities for HCI research. This paper outlines common misconceptions of energy usage in the home, establishes the potential of feedback to change energy consumption behavior, and introduces ten design dimensions of feedback technology with which to build and evaluate future systems.